In general, pigment spots are caused by an excessive deposit of melanin in skin. Dark spots develop on skin’s surface which usually are brownish, reddish or yellowish. They leave skin looking irregular and older than it actually is.
Pigment spots are mainly activated by sun light. They can, however, also develop due to inflammatory processes. Also hormones, medicaments or colorants may be the cause.
EFFECTIVE INGREDIENTS FOR PIGMENT SPOTS
Alpha-Arbutin is a biosynthetic ingredient which helps to improve skin lightening. It counters the enzymatically-induced breakdown of the preliminary stages of melanin. As a result, the enzyme tyrosinase is not able to start the procedure which is responsible for the development of pigmentation.
Zinc gluconate strengthens skin’s resistance.
Niacinamide (a variant of the vitamin B3) is effective against hyperpigmentation and stabilizes at the same time the moisture balance and protective barrier of the skin.
Glycolic acid helps to diminish pigment spots and to counter the development of new ones.